The last of the Piasts, Kazimierz The Great, he was very kind to Krakow, although he did not fully trust its inhabitants. For various reasons, he published in 1335 r. location privilege for Kazimierz – a new town on the Vistula island. However, despite the insistence of the councilors of Kazimierz, he did not in the slightest diminish the privileges of Krakow, on the contrary – confirmed them in the so-called. Great Privilege. However, a court of the highest German law was established at Wawel, which allowed him to keep control over the Vistula stronghold, and – against my father's promise – connected the castle with the city by walls. Krakow has become the European capital, built-up with brick houses and churches, populous, rich and economically developed. In the same year, Kazimierz founded the second University in Central Europe. Miarą szybkiego rozwoju miasta za czasów tego władcy jest zakładanie w oparciu o monarsze przywileje nowych miast satelickich wokół Krakowa: Kazimierz, Kleparza-Florence, The town of Nowy-Okol. It means, that the area of the city is less than 50 years after surrounding it with walls, it turned out to be too small. Kleparz, although it received city rights, it never lived to see walls, and the aforementioned Okół, in the place of ul. Grodzka and Stradom, although it is surrounded by a separate wall, did not hold on as the fourth, an independent part of the four-city and was absorbed by Krakow and Kazimierz. The whole was completed by the suburbs surrounding the center with a thick ring: oak, Debniki, Tannery, church properties: Bishop, Pedzichow, servant royal villages: Swiatniki, Szczytniki, monastic: Tyniec, Grave, Olsza and the city: happy, Sand. You can easily find these villages on today's map. There were numerous mills on the artificially regulated Ore Mountains, breweries, and the first ironworks was built at the monastery in Mogiła.
In September 1564 r. on the initiative of King Kazimierz, the famous monarchs convention is held. They come on him: Emperor Charles IV, kings: Louis of Anjou, Waldemar IV of Denmark, Peter of Cyprus, princes: Bolko Świdntki, Siemowit Mazowiecki, Wladyslaw Opolski. Otton Witelsbach, Margrave of Brandenburg. Where did they eat?? Of course, at Wlerzynek's.